http://donors.mrcb.org.uk/thug-d-gay-black-mm.php New goals for the learning of English have emerged. The cultural values of the United Kingdom and the United States are often seen as irrelevant to language teaching, except in situations where the learner has a pragmatic need for such information. The language teacher no longer needs to be an expert on British and American culture, or a literature specialist either. When it was taken for granted that the variety of English which learners needed to master was a native-speaker one, the choice was often determined by proximity.
In Europe, due to its proximity to the United Kingdom, British English was usually the model presented in teaching materials.
In many other parts of the world, North American English was normally the target. In some places e. Indonesia , learners are more likely to encounter Australian English, and this may be the variety of English they feel most comfortable learning. The two schools of thought concerning how closely learners should try to approximate native-speaker usage can be summarized as follows: The traditional view is that mastery of English means mastering a native-speaker variety of English.
Teaching materials presented exclusively native-speaker models — usually spoken with a standard or prestige accent — as learning targets. The second school of thought is that when English is regarded as an international language, speakers may wish to preserve markers of their cultural identity through the way they speak English. In such cases, learners may regard a French, Italian, Russian or Spanish accent in their English as something valid — something they do not want to lose. This is a question of personal choice for learners, and teachers, therefore, should not assume that learners always want to master a native-speaker accent when they learn English.
Open global navigation Cambridge University Press. Articles Audio Downloads Videos. Pedagogy Key Issues in Language Teaching 3: English as an international language. In response to the growing demand in Europe and Latin America, as well as in the rest of the world, for improvement in the quality and effectiveness of English language teaching in both the public and the private sector, a number of Spanish and Latin American universities have developed an interuniversity programme in Teaching English as a Foreign Language TEFL. The programme aims to help practicing teachers, or those wishing to become teachers, address in an informed and principled way the issues and professional needs that relate to their own working environment.
As a result, the material used has been designed to be accessed on the Internet by means of a special interface created for this reason. The interface is a central part of this type of teacher training since the virtual interaction, by means of e-mail, discussion groups, chats, etc. The programme's practical focus encourages students to reflect on and interpret the relation between theory and practice, to adapt new ideas and strategies to their own contexts, and to test and appraise new teaching techniques in their own classrooms.
Vision and Action Unesco, Paris, , in which the need for intercultural education based on quality and international co-operation through university networks is proclaimed. The currently available systems of communication, which facilitate, among other things, quality distance education, provide the universities with a means to extend their offer by bringing areas of higher social demand at the best academic level to the students. The way to preserve these extremes is found in the construction of University Networks.
FUNIBER has developed the TEFL programme, together with the collaborating universities, in response to the demand for continuous education and in order to encourage the ability to act in real contexts. A team of teachers and specialists in English language teaching, Applied Linguistics and Foreign Language teacher training, is responsible for the making and actualization of the course content and have helped to develop a very comprehensive study programme, which takes into consideration the needs of each geographical area. These distance education courses can be included in an educational model of a collaborative nature that encourages interaction and provides access to the teaching experience of the participants in the programme, both tutors and students alike, through discussion groups, debates and chats.
Distance education stands out as a powerful option in the present and future of our society. The table below summarises the credits for each course. You have an option to choose which of the available courses most suits your individual needs. Each of the above courses the Master, Diploma and Certificates functions separately. In other words, it is not necessary to do any of the Certificates or the Diploma before doing the Master.
The study programme for the Master, Diploma and Certificates in TEFL has been subjected to rigorous educational planning processes, and it offers a very high standard in terms of study materials and teaching resources. At the beginning of each term you will receive a set of high quality distance learning materials.
The researcher made an attempt to examine all the possibly existing researches which investigated/focused on the problems of teaching/learning English in Iran. The third of our short series of posts from Jack Richards' Key Issues in Language Teaching looks at English as an international language, and.
The course methodology has been tried and tested, reflecting the expertise acquired over the years, both in the field of distance education and in the field of TEFL, and it is thus of the highest standard. The course content is continually updated, which ensures its relevance to the context of teaching English as a Foreign Language. Each term you will receive the study materials for three or four subjects taken from these main core areas.
Thus, emphasis is given to simplicity of style in the study materials and clear explanations of technical terms.
The aim of this booklet is to provide you with information, which will help you to study more effectively, as well as detailed guidelines for writing assignments, and assessment procedures. This guide also explains the functioning of the Virtual Campus; a tool we strongly recommend in order for you to get the most out of the courses and to make the learning experience a collaborate one despite being done in distance mode. Due to the practical nature of the courses, there are no examinations as such. Instead, a variety of methods for assessing performance are used including the submission of written assignments, reports, the creation of didactic materials, etc.
Your course tutor s will mark your assignments, and you will receive detailed feedback on your work through the Virtual Campus. The aim thus being to complement professional practice with contemporary knowledge and insights, concerning the nature of foreign language learning and teaching, and to develop the perceptions, knowledge, resources and practical skills necessary to build on this theoretical base.
The promotion of critical reflection is one of the aspects, which define the very nature of the project, and bridges the gap between a solid theoretical knowledge and its required practical application. A guiding principle of the programme is that the participating English teachers are viewed as professional practitioners who through the course are involved in a process of professional development that is directly related to, and located in, their current work situation.
The programme does not consist simple of the delivery of content, but rather, just as in the case of face-to-face courses, it includes a series of pedagogical aspects aimed at promoting collaborative learning between peers and tutors. All the courses are based on the following methodological concepts:. The main features of the programme are the individual flexibility and the continuous feedback provided by the tutors as well as the ample possibilities to communicate with both tutors and peers alike by means of the Virtual Campus.
There are also a number of ways for students to communicate with each other, such as the Group Discussion Lists, the VC e-mail and the Coffee Shop. Most people choose distance education programmes because they are looking for more flexibility than conventional, full-time study offers, so the Master, Diploma and Certificates in TEFL programmes are designed on the assumption that you may want to vary the time you spend on it.
Tools such as the discussion groups, debates and chats, in addition to the tutor support, constitute motivational factors in the learning process. Another important feature of the courses is the continuous support and guidance offered by the tutors. The new system of tutor distribution where each tutor is responsible for one whole term also ensures that students have an added stability in their studies. In addition to the tutor guidance, the student will also find ample support by the other students on the course by means of the various means of communication that the programme offers.
In this way, the student is never alone in the learning process, having access to both peers and tutors at all times.
Collaborative learning is considered to be the essence of academic development, and in this case, also of the professional development the students take part in on the course. Following this same line, students are also encouraged to form study groups. The Virtual Campus offers you the possibility of making direct contact with peers working on the course at your own and other universities, and discussing issues and questions arising from the course materials.
Apart from the enormous potential for making direct and continued contact with peers and tutors, you will be able to access the course materials themselves on-line, and to submit assignments via the Virtual Campus VC.
The virtual campus has been developed following a definite pedagogical approach, according to the criteria detailed below:. At the beginning of the course, each student is provided with an individual password and a user name to allow access to the Virtual Campus. In addition to this, the first two weeks before the course officially starts consist of an orientation period to the use the VC. Consequently, you do not need any previous IT-knowledge to enrol on the course.
During the Orientation Period, students take part in a series of socialization tasks in order to get to know each other while learning how to use the virtual campus sending internal mails, opening and sending attachments, read on-line articles etc.
These two initial weeks of orientation have proved to be extremely useful, and at times even crucial for the establishment of group dynamics. Finally, those students who do not have the possibility to access the internet on a regular basis, can still follow the course using the conventional written material in normal fashion and contacting the tutors by telephone, e-mail, fax or ordinary post. However, in order to get the most out of the programme we strongly advise that you try to use the Virtual Campus as far as possible since it allows you to get a more complete and immediate feedback from the tutors.
Whichever the case, those students who have no means to access the Internet, will still be provided with a password and a username, in the event that they should get an opportunity to connect. In the context of distance education, feedback on written work is extremely important, as it provides direct contact with a tutor, and serves as an index of your progress on the course.
As such, it is an essential part of the programme and one that we devote a lot of time and effort to. Our aim in giving detailed feedback is to provide you with the opportunity to improve future assignments, and, in more general terms, to be able to grow and develop professionally via the course. All this is possible using the multimedia base of the Virtual Campus that not only provides an important access to the course content and academic resources, but also a means to bridge the geographical gaps between all the components on the course, providing the student with continuous support and guidance.
Without doubt, enrolling on any course in professional development will influence your career and expertise. If on top of that you can do so in your own time, at the place of your choice and allowing you to fuse your personal duties with your academic ones while still having access to quality material and qualified tutors, then the experience is bound to be a success!