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See our Returns Policy. Visit our Help Pages. Audible Download Audio Books. The new king, Amulius, feared Romulus and Remus would take back the throne, a she-wolf saved and raised them, and when they were old enough, they returned the throne of Alba Longa to Numitor. Romulus became the source of the citys name, in order to attract people to the city, Rome became a sanctuary for the indigent, exiled, and unwanted. This caused a problem for Rome, which had a large workforce but was bereft of women, Romulus traveled to the neighboring towns and tribes and attempted to secure marriage rights, but as Rome was so full of undesirables they all refused.
Legend says that the Latins invited the Sabines to a festival and stole their unmarried maidens, leading to the integration of the Latins, after a long time in rough seas, they landed at the banks of the Tiber River. Not long after they landed, the men wanted to take to the sea again, one woman, named Roma, suggested that the women burn the ships out at sea to prevent them from leaving. At first, the men were angry with Roma, but they realized that they were in the ideal place to settle. They named the settlement after the woman who torched their ships, the Roman poet Virgil recounted this legend in his classical epic poem the Aeneid.
Antikes Griechenland — Ancient Greece was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 12th-9th centuries BC to the end of antiquity. Immediately following this period was the beginning of the Early Middle Ages and this was followed by the period of Classical Greece, an era that began with the Greco-Persian Wars, lasting from the 5th to 4th centuries BC.
Classical Greek culture, especially philosophy, had a influence on ancient Rome. For this reason Classical Greece is generally considered to be the culture which provided the foundation of modern Western culture and is considered the cradle of Western civilization. Classical Antiquity in the Mediterranean region is considered to have begun in the 8th century BC.
The end of the Dark Ages is also dated to BC. The Archaic period gives way to the Classical period around BC, Ancient Periods Astronomical year numbering Dates are approximate, consult particular article for details The history of Greece during Classical Antiquity may be subdivided into five major periods. The earliest of these is the Archaic period, in which artists made larger free-standing sculptures in stiff, the Archaic period is often taken to end with the overthrow of the last tyrant of Athens and the start of Athenian Democracy in BC.
It was followed by the Classical period, characterized by a style which was considered by observers to be exemplary, i. This period begins with the death of Alexander and ends with the Roman conquest, Herodotus is widely known as the father of history, his Histories are eponymous of the entire field. Herodotus was succeeded by authors such as Thucydides, Xenophon, Demosthenes, Plato, most of these authors were either Athenian or pro-Athenian, which is why far more is known about the history and politics of Athens than those of many other cities. Their scope is limited by a focus on political, military and diplomatic history, ignoring economic.
In the 8th century BC, Greece began to emerge from the Dark Ages which followed the fall of the Mycenaean civilization, literacy had been lost and Mycenaean script forgotten, but the Greeks adopted the Phoenician alphabet, modifying it to create the Greek alphabet. The Lelantine War is the earliest documented war of the ancient Greek period and it was fought between the important poleis of Chalcis and Eretria over the fertile Lelantine plain of Euboea.
Both cities seem to have suffered a decline as result of the long war, a mercantile class arose in the first half of the 7th century BC, shown by the introduction of coinage in about BC. Hellenismus — It is often considered a period of transition, sometimes even of decadence or degeneration, compared to the enlightenment of the Greek Classical era. The Hellenistic period saw the rise of New Comedy, Alexandrian poetry, the Septuagint, Greek science was advanced by the works of the mathematician Euclid and the polymath Archimedes.
The religious sphere expanded to include new gods such as the Greco-Egyptian Serapis, eastern deities such as Attis and Cybele, the Hellenistic period was characterized by a new wave of Greek colonization which established Greek cities and kingdoms in Asia and Africa. This resulted in the export of Greek culture and language to new realms. Equally, however, these new kingdoms were influenced by the cultures, adopting local practices where beneficial, necessary.
Hellenistic culture thus represents a fusion of the Ancient Greek world with that of the Near East, Middle East and this mixture gave rise to a common Attic-based Greek dialect, known as Koine Greek, which became the lingua franca through the Hellenistic world. Scholars and historians are divided as to what event signals the end of the Hellenistic era, Hellenistic is distinguished from Hellenic in that the first encompasses the entire sphere of direct ancient Greek influence, while the latter refers to Greece itself.
Although words related in form or meaning, e.
Some areas of the world were more affected by Greek influences than others. The Greek population and the population did not always mix, the Greeks moved and brought their own culture. While a few fragments exist, there is no surviving historical work which dates to the hundred years following Alexanders death. The works of the major Hellenistic historians Hieronymus of Cardia, Duris of Samos, the earliest and most credible surviving source for the Hellenistic period is Polybius of Megalopolis, a statesman of the Achaean League until BC when he was forced to go to Rome as a hostage.
His Histories eventually grew to a length of forty books, covering the years to BC, another important source, Plutarchs Parallel Lives though more preoccupied with issues of personal character and morality, outlines the history of important Hellenistic figures. Appian of Alexandria wrote a history of the Roman empire that includes information of some Hellenistic kingdoms, other sources include Justins epitome of Pompeius Trogus Historiae Philipicae and a summary of Arrians Events after Alexander, by Photios I of Constantinople.
Ancient Greece had traditionally been a collection of fiercely independent city-states. After the Peloponnesian War, Greece had fallen under a Spartan hegemony, in which Sparta was pre-eminent but not all-powerful. Aristophanes developed his type of comedy from the satyr plays 2.
Athens, Argos, Thebes and Corinth, the two of which were formerly Spartan allies, challenged Spartan dominance in the Corinthian War, which ended inconclusively in BC 3. They named the settlement after the woman who torched their ships, the Roman poet Virgil recounted this legend in his classical epic poem the Aeneid 4.
Both cities seem to have suffered a decline as result of the long war, a mercantile class arose in the first half of the 7th century BC, shown by the introduction of coinage in about BC 5. Thalia , muse of comedy, holding a comic mask - detail of "Muses Sarcophagus", the nine Muses and their attributes; marble, early second century AD, Via Ostiense - Louvre.
Title page of the first quarto of Shakespeare's Midsummer Night's Dream Dean Martin and Jerry Lewis ca. According to legend, Rome was founded in BC by Romulus and Remus , who were raised by a she-wolf.
Etruscan painting ; dancer and musicians, Tomb of the Leopards , in Tarquinia, Italy. This bust from the Capitoline Museums is traditionally identified as a portrait of Lucius Junius Brutus , Roman bronze sculpture , 4th to late 3rd centuries BC. The Parthenon , a temple dedicated to Athena , located on the Acropolis in Athens , is one of the most representative symbols of the culture and sophistication of the ancient Greeks.
The Victorious Youth c. Political geography of ancient Greece in the Archaic and Classical periods. The Nike of Samothrace is considered one of the greatest masterpieces of Hellenistic art. Dionysus sculpture from the Ancient Art Collection at Yale. Alexander's empire at the time of its maximum expansion. Greek literature dates from ancient Greek literature, beginning in BC, to the modern Greek literature of today. Idealized portrayal of Homer. A page from a 16th-century edition of the 10th century Byzantine encyclopaedia of the ancient Mediterranean world, the Suda.
Manuel Chrysoloras , scholar in the Renaissance. Detail, side A from a Sicilian red-figured calyx- krater c. Figurine of an actor wearing the mask of a bald-headed man, 2nd century BC. The four heroes from the 16th-century Chinese novel Journey to the West.
Ivan Tsarevich , a hero of Russian folklore. John Shakespeare's house, believed to be Shakespeare's birthplace , in Stratford-upon-Avon. Shakespeare's funerary monument in Stratford-upon-Avon. Falstaff and his page. The title page of the quarto the False Folio: A most pleasant and excellent conceited comedy, of Sir John Falstaffe, and the merry wiues of Windsor. Falstaff wooing Mistress Ford.